A history of the trombone in timeline form. For sources see Trombone History Bibliography.
Europe and the East[ change change source ] The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century.
By the year it had spread throughout Europe.
Buddhist pilgrims, Silk Road traders and others carried it to the Far Eastwhere it was transformed into a game often played on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares.
However, it was the changes made in medieval Europe which led to our modern game. There is the original Indo-Arabic game, and there is the modern game, usually called 'international chess'. The transition between the two happened during the change from the medieval world to the modern world, in the Europe of the later 15th century.
In fact, the new game of chess was one of the early topics chosen for the new technology of printing. The pieces are simplified and abstract, perhaps influenced by Arabic sets, or simply by ease of manufacture. At the other extreme, a mediaeval chess bishop. This is a typical example of a shatranj problem or Mansuba.
Black threatens mate with either rook; but because the al-fil can jump to the third square on the diagonal, white wins by 1.
Nh6 In early chess the moves of the pieces were: The game could be won by 1. Mating the king; 2.
By giving stalemate; 3. By capturing all the opponent's pieces. This kept down the number of draws. Changes in Europe[ change change source ] In Europe some of the pieces got new names: Its Latin name alfinus was reinterpreted various ways.
About years after chess first reached Europe, after some smaller experiments, there were big changes in the way the pieces moved.
The style of painting, sculpture and decorative arts identified with the Renaissance emerged in Italy in the late 14th century; it reached its zenith in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, in. The 14 th century in Europe is notorious for many things, but one of my favorite (and less grim) legacies is the button. Mind you, buttons existed before the 14 th century, but it was during this time that the fashionable integration of buttons gave us a true embarrassment of riches. Indeed, it is the 14 th century’s copious application of buttons on clothing that draws many a historical. History of Tapestry Art. Carolingian/Ottonian Tapestries. The use of tapestries in Western Europe - mainly for the decoration of churches and monasteries - was a feature of Carolingian art () and subsequent Ottonian art (), although no examples of these early wall-hangings remain. One of the oldest surviving specimens is the famous Bayeux Tapestry (c, Bayeux Museum.
The effect was to make the start of the game run faster, and get the opposing pieces in contact sooner. Pawn moving two squares in its first move. This led to the en passant rule: King jumping once, to make it quicker to put the king safe in a corner. This eventually led to castling.
Its movement was more limited than the king, for it could move one square only on the diagonals. This right was sometimes extended to a new queen made by promoting a pawn.
The piece was then called the fers. It can only be understood as an attempt to improve the game as a sport. These changes made most of the older chess culture obsolete.
The slow development in the openings was replaced by gambits and rapid attacks. The relative values of the pieces are changed. Originally, this was not seen as a problem, but as technique improved, so did the number of draws.
This became a matter for discussion in the early 20th century. The limited number of ways to win changed what players needed to win in the endgame ; many endgames which could be won with the old rules now were drawn.
Evidence in print and manuscripts[ change change source ] The first printed work on chess to survive to the present day is Luis de Lucena's Arte de axedres, printed in SalamancaSpain.
It can be dated to or This suggests that the transition is not quite complete, and some readers might not know about the new rules.
Bywhen Damiano published his Questo libro e da imparare giocare a scachi in Romeit only included problems with the new rules, and does not mention the medieval game.
The same applies to the Gottingen manuscript, probably written in Spain or Portugal.Drawing, the art or technique of producing images on a surface, usually paper, by means of marks, usually of ink, graphite, chalk, charcoal, or crayon..
Drawing as formal artistic creation might be defined as the primarily linear rendition of objects in the visible world, as well as of concepts, thoughts, attitudes, emotions, and fantasies given visual form, of symbols and even of abstract forms.
The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years to In Europe, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period. Early Netherlandish painting is the work of artists, sometimes known as the Flemish Primitives, active in the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands during the 15th- and 16th-century Northern Renaissance, especially in the flourishing cities of Bruges, Ghent, Mechelen, Louvain, Tournai and Brussels, all in present-day ph-vs.com period begins approximately with Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in.
Greatest Trecento Works of Art. Italian painting and sculpture from the 14th century can be seen in some of the best art museums in the world..
Paintings • Assisi Frescoes (c or earlier) by Cimabue and Giotto Upper Church of S. Francesco of Assisi. The history of chess goes back more than years.
The game originated in northern India in the 6th century AD and spread to ph-vs.com the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently, through the Moorish conquest of Spain, spread to Southern Europe..
In Europe, the moves of the pieces changed in the 15th century. The modern game starts with these changes. The 15th century marks a turning point in art history. In Florence, the advent of the Renaissance rekindled interest in Greco-Roman culture. Donatello’s David was the first freestanding nude statue since antiquity, and the architects Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti took inspiration from the Roman writer Vitruvius, designing buildings .