Background[ edit ] Robert David Putnam was born on January 9, in Rochester, New York and grew up in Port Clinton, Ohio where he participated in a competitive bowling league as a teenager. He taught at the University of Michigan until joining the faculty at Harvard inwhere he has held a variety of positions, including Dean of the Kennedy School, and is currently the Malkin Professor of Public Policy. Putnam was raised as a religiously observant Methodist. InPutnam married his wife Rosemary, a special education teacher and French horn player.
He received a Ph. InKuhn accepted a post at the University of California, Berkeley, where in he became a full professor of history of science. Inhe was named M. In he returned to Boston, this time to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as professor of philosophy and history of science.
In he was named Laurence S. He held honorary degrees from institutions that included Columbia University and the universities of Notre Dame, Chicago, Padua and Athens.
He suffered from Cancer during the last years of his life and died on Monday, June 17, at the age of 73 at his home in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was survived by his wife and three children. Initially published as a monograph in the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, it was published in book form by the University of Chicago Press in It has sold some one million copies in 16 languages and is required reading in courses dealing with education, history, psychology, research, and, of course, history and philosophy of science.
Where once the history of science was seen as a steady progression where theory is added to theory until the truth is found, Kuhn saw a series of revolutionary changes of the world-view of science, where the view of one period had very little in common with the previous.
See the following bibliography on Kuhn: Kuhn, Philosophical Essays", with autobiographical interview, University of Chicago, Steve Fuller, Thomas Kuhn: Technology and The Good Life humans and their gods Issues of great consequence in today's high tech innovators we can ignore at our peril.
It displaced, even if it did not immediately vanish, the positivistic professional historians of science as the basic understanding of science. It destroyed the philosophy of science as a valid scholarly understanding. It opened pathways for historians to utilize the work of anthropologists and sociologists in studying the history of science.
It provided a suite of critical methodologies for historians to challenge scientists' own accounts of their work. The Arts and Humanities Citation Index: The compilers of The Index examined the record for the years and issued a report on the most cited works of the 20th century.
The most cited author was Lenin, which speaks volumes on the state of The Humanities in the West toward the end of the cold war.
The Index is now online and records one hundred citations to the book for plus another four hundred in The Social Sciences Citation Index. The tone of the citation is reverential.
See New Paradigm Thinking http: Normal science is science pursued by a community of scientists who share a paradigm. Their consensus is based on commitment to the paradigm. The commitment is derived from their training and values; it is not the result of critical testing of the paradigm.
Once the question is asked the answer is obvious. The idea that science is all theoretical talk and negotiation that never really establishes anything, is one that caused trouble long ago for Galileo. Up to his time, philosophy of science had concentrated on such questions as how evidence confirms theories and what the difference is between science and pseudo science, that is, questions about the logic of science.
Kuhn declares that logic is outmoded and is replaced by history. The history of scientific achievements hardly support Kuhn's thesis. What was previously thought to be a continuous and uninteresting succession of random events is discovered to be a conflict of a finite number of hidden gods classes, complexes, paradigms as the case may bewho manipulate the flux of appearances to their own advantage, but whose machination may be uncovered by the elect to whom the king has been revealed.
His claim is that Kuhn gave no attention to the complaints the left wished made against the complicity of science in the military industrial complex. Central to it was The National Science Foundation, which provided large sums for basic research, of the kind that had turned out unexpectedly to be at the basis of the making of the atomic bomb in contrast to the ideologically specified technological ends, like Lyenko's biology and Nazi eugenics.
Science tends to lack a story line or anything that engages the emotions or encourages the taking of sides. His solution was history. This was the plan Kuhn implemented in his own teaching and refined in his books, but his thesis was not exported to universities other than Harvard, and when Conant became U.
Ambassador to West Germany, Kuhn was left undefended and in refused tenure on the grounds that he was not an expert on anything in particular. General education for humanists at Harvard retreated to the plan of introducing them to a little real science.Aug 02, · When you hurt so much you would do anything to make it stop, the last thing you want is more pain.
Painless suicide methods are .
Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. by Robert D. Putnam (New York: Simon & Schuster, ). In a groundbreaking book based on vast data, Putnam shows how we have become increasingly disconnected from family, friends, neighbors, and our democratic structures– and how we may reconnect.
ph-vs.com: Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (): Robert D. Putnam: Books. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
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