Term papers are popular assignments in high school and college. They are typically longer assignments than regular essays, and allow you to do in depth research. Many professors request term papers at several points throughout the year, especially at the ends of each term, to assess your learning. A term paper can be about any subjectfrom the sciences to the arts.
Indentured Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian "coolies" singing and dancing on an estate in Trinidad and Tobago. By the s, many Indians they were referred to as Klings, or Kelingwhich was used as a derogatory word, much as the word Coolie  were voluntarily enlisting to go abroad for work, in the hopes of a better life.
European merchants and businessmen quickly took advantage of this and began recruiting them for work as a cheap source of labour. A system of agents was used to infiltrate the rural villages of India and recruit labourers. They would often deceive the credulous workers about the great opportunities that awaited them for their own material betterment abroad.
The Indians primarily came from the Indo-Gangetic Plainbut also from Tamil Nadu and other areas to the south of the country. In the last part of the nineteenth century alone, there were 24 famines.
Byover 3, labourers had been transported. After this trade was discovered, the French successfully negotiated with the British in for permission to transport over 6, workers annually, on condition that the trade would be suspended if abuses were discovered to be taking place.
Slavery had been abolished, with the planters receiving two million pounds sterling in compensation for the loss of their slaves.
The planters turned to bringing in a large number of indentured labourers from India to work in the sugar cane fields. Between andaround half a million indentured labourers were present on the island. They worked on sugar estates, factories, in transport and on construction sites.
The rules provided for each labourer to be personally authorised for transportation by an officer designated by the Government, limited the length of service to five years subject to voluntary renewal, made the contractor responsible for returning the worker after the contract elapsed and required the vessels to conform to basic health standards.
Despite this, conditions on the ships were often extremely crowded, with rampant disease and malnutrition. Coolies were also not informed about the length of the trip or about the island that they would be going to.
Colonial legislation was also passed to severely limit their freedoms; in Mauritius a compulsory pass system was instituted to enable their movements to be easily tracked.
Conditions were much worse in the French colonies of Reunion and Guadeloupe and Martiniquewhere workers were 'systematically overworked' and abnormally high mortality rates were recorded for those working in the mines. However, these promises were rarely kept, leading to the higher mortality rate and image of Indian Coolies being "dirty".
Though some ships had made attempts to prevent assault, rape, and general mistreatment in sailor contracts, these indiscretions were still common. Even with punishments in place, on ship and land, men who assaulted women and children were rarely punished, leaving women in an even more vulnerable position.
Workers were regularly checked up on by health inspectorsand they were vetted before transportation to ensure that they were suitably healthy and fit to be able to endure the rigours of labour.
Children under the age of 15 were not allowed to be transported from their parents under any circumstances. Petitions from Sturge, the Society of Friends, various other humanitarian groups, and from citizens of entire cities were routinely sent to the Colonial Offices. A more rigorous regulatory framework was put into place and severe penalties were imposed for infractions in Writing term papers is a necessity for students.
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Great for gathering ideas or locating sources to help you get started. Custom Writing Service. Michigan is now a town in disarray due to contaminated drinking water. In spite of dozens of class-action and. Etymology. The origins of the word are uncertain but it is thought to have originated from the Tamil word for a payment for work, kuli (கூலி).
An alternative etymological explanation is that the word came from Hindustani word qulī (क़ुली, قلی), which itself could be from the Ottoman Turkish word for slave (or as a general name for imperial subjects regardless of other.
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