Renaissance architecture The origin of Renaissance architecture is generally accredited to Filippo Brunelleschi — : The movement grew from scientific observations of nature, in particular human anatomy. Neo-Renaissance architecture is formed by not only the original Italian architecture but by the form in which Renaissance architecture developed in France during the 16th century.
Interior of the Convent of Tzintzuntzan. The syncretic Indian-Christian mode of architecture developed organically as Indians interpreted European architectural and decorative features in the native, pre-Columbian style called tequitqui "laborer" or "mason", from Nahuatl.
These were conceived of as fortressesbut based architecturally on the European conventual model, incorporating new features such as the open chapel and atriums with a stone cross at the center; they were characterized by different decorative elements.
These buildings, spread across the central part of what is now Mexico, contain superb examples of the indigenous mastery of architecture and the sculptural arts. Their work, created under the supervision of the Catholic friars, was done in the tequitqui style, which originated in the architectural stone carving and decorative painting practiced by their ancestors before the Spanish conquest.
The dominant form of art and architecture during most of the colonial period was Baroque. Its aim was to use painting and sculpture in and on churches to create iconography to teach and reinforce Church doctrine.
Spanish Baroque was transplanted to Mexico and developed its own varieties from the late 16th to late 18th centuries. One reason for this was that in nearly all cities, towns and villages, the church was the center of the community, with streets in a regular pattern leading away from it.
Church design in New Spain tended to follow the rectilinear pattern of squares and cubes, rather than contemporary European churches that favored curves and orbs.
The purpose was contemplation and meditation.
The rich ornamentation was created to keep attention focused on the central themes. This was especially true of the main altar. Columns and pilasters were an important element of Mexican Baroque style, in particular the part of the column between the capital and the base, which can be categorized in six types including Salomonic and estipite an inverted truncated pyramid in the later colonial period.
Features were molded from stucco with intricate detail and either covered in gold leaf or paint. This form reached its height in the 17th century in Puebla and Oaxaca.
One reason this style fell out of favor was that the stucco work eventually dissolved. The main defining feature was the use of hand-painted ceramic tiles of the Talavera type. This style came into being here because of the pottery industry. Tiles are mostly found on the bell towers, domes and main portals of the exterior.
They are also found interspersed on the rest of the facade as accents to brickwork. This type of Baroque first appeared in the 17th century and reached its height in the 18th. While wholesale use of this style is mostly confined to two states, elements of this tile work appear, especially in domes, in many other parts of the country.
It had a more two-dimensional quality, which led it to be called Mestizo Baroque or Folk Baroque. The two-level effect was less based on sculptural modeling and more on drilling into the surface to create a screen-like effect.
This has some similarities to pre-Hispanic stone and wood carving, allowing elements of indigenous art tradition to survive. Medallions and niches with statues commonly appear between columns and pilasters, especially around main portals and windows.
Another late Baroque style in Mexico is often called Mexican Churrigueresque after the Spanish Churriguera family, who made altarpieces at this time. However, the more technical term for this very exuberant, anti-classical style is ultra Baroque.
It originated in Spain as architectural decoration, spreading to sculpture and furniture carving. This is not a true column, but rather an elongated base in the form of an inverted, truncated pyramid. He also created a stronger horizontal division between the first and second levels, which derived Mexican ultra Baroque from the Spanish version.
The ultra Baroque appeared when Mexican mines were producing great wealth, prompting numerous building projects. Much of Mexican ultra Baroque can be seen in and the city of Guanajuato and its mines. For this reason, the style became more developed in Mexico than in Spain.
Even more than its Spanish counterpart, the American Baroque developed as a style of stucco decoration. Twin towers facades of many American cathedrals of the 17th century have medieval roots. To the north, the richest province of the 18th century, New Spainthe current Mexico, was an architecture fantastically extravagant and visually frenetic that is Mexican churrigueresque.
Other notable examples are in remote mining towns. The true capital of Mexican Baroque is Pueblawhere the abundance of hand painted tiles and local gray stone led to a very personal and localized evolution of style, with a pronounced Indian flavor.
The New Spanish Baroque is an artistic movement that appeared in what is now Mexico in the late 16th century, approximately, which was preserved until the midth century. From the Portuguese word barrueco meaning unclean, mottled, flamboyant, daring, the most striking example of New Spanish Baroque art is in religious architecture, where indigenous artisans gave it a unique character.
The Biblioteca Palafoxianaconsidered by some historians the first public library in the Americas, was founded in by Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza of Puebla, with a gift of 5, volumes  to the Colegio de San Juan which he had also foundedon the condition that they be made available to the general public,  and not just to ecclesiastics and seminarians.
This was finished inand has two levels of bookshelves and a retabloor altarpiece, a delicate work which houses an image of the Madonna of Trapanian oil painting presumably modeled on the sculpture carved by the Sicilian master Nino Pisano in the midth century.French renaissance architecture was a combination of the earlier Gothic style coupled with a strong Italian influence represented by arches, arcades, balustrading and, in general, a more flowing line of design than had been apparent in the earlier Gothic.
;French Baroque architecture was more restrained in its expression than its Italian counterpart. ;The most common and remembered details that made the two styles different were its culture, economy, religion, government, and economics.
Difference Between Italian And French Baroque Architecture Baroque is the name given to the art of the 17th century. But the baroque style, like all other styles in the history of art, began gradually. It started in the latter part of the 16th century and continued to be used well into the 18th century.
Jan 02, · Yet while the Baroque era stretched across the 17 th century, the Rococo style was fleeting in comparison, spanning more or less from the s to the s (during the reign of Louis XV). The differences between the two can more or less be summed up in terms of mood (feeling of the age), function, and ph-vs.coms: Difference Between Italian And French Baroque Architecture Baroque is the name given to the art of the 17th century.
But the baroque style, like all other styles in the history of art, began gradually. It started in the latter part of the 16th century and continued to be used well into the 18th century. Difference Between Italian And French Baroque Architecture Difference Between Italian And French Baroque Architecture Baroque is the name given to the art of the 17th century.
But the baroque style, like all other styles in the history of art, began gradually.