Organizational Theory Required Text:
Behaviorism and Constructivism Modern methodologists put a lot of effort defining the best methodological model for students and for the future perspective.
In the papers I will concentrate on behaviorist and constructivist models of learning, their definitions, differences and similarities. Behaviorism concentrates on learning through observing. Behaviorists believe that individuals need reinforcements as positive stimulus for their good actions and punishments for mistakes and blunders.
According to this theory the surrounding shapes behavior and the learning process must be composed of small steps. Constructivism regards learning as a process, where the new ideas are built of constructed in the minds of learners and these models are based on the past knowledge.
It puts the individual in the center of learning process and learning is regarded view as highly individual process. The knowledge is acquired through internalization.
According to the constructivism theory the teacher works as a facilitator who helps to acquire the students the new material by problem-solving tasks and giving them interesting tasks. Constructivism is often opposed to behaviorism.
Behaviorism is interested in the study of changes of behavior caused by the changes of mental state. Teacher is supposed to transmit the knowledge from the world to the minds of pupils.
Behaviorism relies on transmission, instructionism and hard control from the side of the teacher. Behaviorists believe that there can be chosen the objective knowledge to describe the world and the process of learning can be reduced to the transmission and it states that what one person the teacher knows can be passed to the minds of others students.
The behaviorist approach has created a stereotyped model of teaching which is often criticized by modern methodologists. The main points which are criticized are teacher-directed model where the students and given little possibilities for creativity and self-realization. While behaviorism relies on the objectiveness and behavior manifestation, cognitivism counts on the meaning, representation and thought or, to express it in few words counts on cognitive approach.
Here lie the main differences in these two approaches and the way in which the knowledge is acquired, the prioritized types of knowledge, skills and activities chosen for learning process.
Different goals are established and different means are chosen for their realization. The roles of students and teachers are radically different in these two approaches.
Gergen views, teachers as coordinators, facilitators, resource advisors, tutors or coaches. The concept of learning is central to constructivism. So, we can say that behaviorism concentrates on the product of study and constructivism concentrates on the process itself. In constructivism the process of problem-solving is important but not the solutions itself.
And different attitude to the mistakes of the students come from these differences in the approaches. In behaviorism the mistakes are corrected immediately and ambiguity is not supposed. In modern methodology there is a tendency to change the behaviorist approach which was popular during past years into new approaches such as constructivism and others which let develop thinking, creativity and imagination.
International Journal of Educational Research 31 5 Mayer Collaborative Learning Techniques: We are your reliable essay writing helper where you can buy custom papers in line with your individual requirements. Our experienced writers always provide original works written from scratch.Conclusion.
From organizational learning theory we can infer the following issues which may affect knowledge management and knowledge management systems.
OL is dependent on allowing organizational inquiry to take place according to theory-in-use, not espoused theory. Note: Citations are based on reference standards.
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Organizational Learning II: Theory, Method, and Practice expands and updates the ideas and concepts of the authors' ground-breaking first book. Offering fresh innovations, strategies, and concise explanations of long-held theories, this book includes new alternatives for practitioners and researchers.
Organizational learning and organizational knowledge have seen important growth in both the academic and business worlds. However, both approaches face various problems, the most striking of which is their theoretical confusion and diversity.
Step-by-step procedures for understanding and improving any organization. A chapter Resource Reading section highlights key issues in diagnosis and intervention with articles by Wendell French and Cecil Bell, Peter Vaill, Peter Drucker, Peter Block and Tony Petrella, Warren Bennis and many others.
Aspects Of Organizational Learning: Four Reflective Essays Jerrold A.
Walton University of Pennsylvania, Aspects Of Organizational Learning: Four Reflective Essays Abstract Organizational Behavior and Theory Comments.