The Concepts of Beneficence and Benevolence The term beneficence connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and charity. It is suggestive of altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of others. In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is understood even more broadly in ethical theory to include effectively all forms of action intended to benefit or promote the good of other persons. Many dimensions of applied ethics appear to incorporate such appeals to obligatory beneficence, even if only implicitly.
Important related works include: John Rawls, Justice as Fairness: Introduction John Rawls is widely regarded as one of the most important political philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century. He is primarily known for his theory of justice as fairnesswhich develops principles of justice to govern a modern social order.
It is about relationships between members of an association. Rawls is chiefly concerned with the political association known as the modern nation-state. Moellendorf and other defenders of "cosmopolitan justice" apply the approach Rawls developed for the nation-state to the global community, which may be understood as an economic association even if there is no effective international political association.
More may be said later about cosmopolitan justice. Two moral powers John Rawls develops a conception of justice from the perspective that persons are free and equal.
Their freedom consists in their possession of the two moral powers, "a capacity for a sense of justice and for a conception of the good. A sense of justice is "the capacity to understand, to apply, and to act from the public conception of justice which characterizes the fair terms of cooperation. A conception of the good includes "a conception of what is valuable in human life.
These include moral philosophies like utilitarianism and philosophical systems such as Kantianism, Platonism and Stoicism.
They also include religious doctrines such as Augustinianism, Thomism, orthodox Judaism, etc. Comprehensive Doctrines A moral conception is comprehensive when it includes "conceptions of what is of value in human life, and ideals of personal character, as well as ideals of friendship and of familial and associational relationships, and much else that is to inform our conduct, and in the limit to our life as a whole.
A conception is fully comprehensive if it covers all recognized values and virtues within one rather precisely articulated system; whereas a conception is only partially comprehensive when it comprises a number of, but by no means all, nonpolitical values and virtues and is rather loosely articulated.
A comprehensive doctrine may include a political conception of justice but a political conception of justice falls far short of addressing questions of interest to the comprehensive doctrine. Thus, a political conception may address whether we are to respect freedom of speech and assembly for other comprehensive doctrines than our own, but it will not address the question of precisely how we should conduct ourselves so as to secure our happiness or eternal salvation.
A political conception conceives of persons as having the two moral powers mentioned above, as being responsible for their actions, etc. Recall, as mentioned above, that Rawls conceives of "society as a fair system of cooperation over time, from one generation to the next.
Political Conception of Justice A political conception of justice, says Rawls, has three basic features. First, "it is a moral conception worked out for a specific kind of subject, namely, for political, social, and economic institutions.
This does not mean that it cannot be justified from within a comprehensive doctrine--indeed, it has no chance of success unless a number of comprehensive doctrines support it.
What it means is that there exists a network of concepts in the "public political culture" from which the political conception can be explained and justified. Third, "its content is expressed in terms of certain fundamental ideas seen as implicit in the public political culture of a democratic society.
This public culture comprises the political institutions of a constitutional regime and the public traditions of their interpretation" PL Rawls now regards his own theory of justice as fairness involving his idea of the original positionthe veil of ignoranceand the derivation of two principles of justice [TJ, ] as a political conception of justice.
Such a conception does not commit one who holds it to a doctrine about the metaphysical nature of persons whether we consist of immortal souls or whether we are creatures of an eternal omniscient deityalthough such commitments may well be part of a comprehensive doctrine.
Reasonable Citizens The political conception of justice points to a notion of reasonable citizens.
For those terms to be fair terms, citizens offering them must reasonably think that those citizens to whom they are offered might also reasonably accept them.
They must be able to do this as free and equal, and not as dominated or manipulated, or under the pressure of an inferior political or social position" PL xliv; see also 49, Rawls calls this the "criterion of reciprocity.
We recognize such sources of disagreement or burdens of judgment as: Rawls notes three features of such a doctrine.
They would not do so even if their view were to become the majority and they had no fear of being repressed in turn. They will permit members of their own faith to investigate others and to abandon that their original faith or form of spirituality if they are so moved.
A reasonable Christian or Muslim will not regard it as a crime if another member of his or her faith investigates Buddhism or decides to become a Buddhist. The Original Position has often been compared to the "state of nature" or the pre-political condition of humanity, which was important in the philosophies of early modern social contract theorists.
According to thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, in order to understand political obligation, we should first I conceive what human beings were like or would have been like before the creation of organized societies under governments and laws, and then II ask A what reasons would have motivated people to form an organized society and B what principles human beings in this pre-political condition would have chosen to guide their interaction in a society under an established government.
In the social contract tradition there are three items to keep distinct: Because of its connection with 12 was thought to reveal what arrangements are just or fair.
It is a model, an abstract mental device to help us understand something else, in this case, the principles of political or social justice. Each real person in the just social order has a representative in the Original Position.Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
As with most philosophically-driven disciplines, the concept of justice differs in every ph-vs.com early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his work The ph-vs.comtes of divine command theory say that justice issues from God. 8 1 - bpsr ustice “Part A,” referring to normative validity, and the other, “Part B,” focused on social and political justice and on applied ethics.
Apply the theory of social justice proposed by John Rawls to analyze the social and economic system of Hong Kong and assess whether the system in Hong Kong meets the . From the Republic, written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, to A Theory of Justice, written by the late Harvard philosopher John Rawls, every major work on ethics has held that justice is part of the central core of morality.
John Rawls (b. , d. ) was an American political philosopher in the liberal tradition. His theory of justice as fairness describes a society of free citizens holding equal basic rights and cooperating within an egalitarian economic system. His theory of political liberalism delineates the legitimate use of political power in a democracy, and envisions how civic unity might endure.
sis of the critical theory, a conception of social justice that is capable, “Part B,” focused on social and political justice and on applied ethics.