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Furthermore, owing to the comparative strength of the Chinese economic and diplomatic approach, a competitive soft-power response from the US may prove inadequate. In consequence, it may be more advantageous for the US to pursue a heightened hard-power response to ameliorate any potential threat.
In line with this approach, the project will firstly scrutinize the situational variables resident in each nation that comprises the terrain of the issue. From this point, the focus will be turned towards an analysis of the usefulness of the two polar theoretical explanations liberal and realist for the current Chinese Course of Action COA in Tonga.
The project will draw from a diverse variety of academic publications, expert opinion pieces and news media sources.
The analysis reveals that the Chinese strategic pivot into the nation of Tonga superficially appeared to be motivated by benign economic opportunism. However, engagement with Tonga was found to hold a minimal benefit to China in terms of resource supply or economic gain.
The major strategic benefits that were found to accrue to China were through the potential securing of Tonga for the establishment of a forward operating military base in the South Pacific.
This motivation was found to pose a significant security threat to the US-lead regional order. Although an isolated island nation, Tonga is in a Geographically advantageous position, strategically located within what is regarded as the third island chain of the Pacific and in the path of a major economic sea lane.
Additionally, Tonga has been allotted legal rights to a significant number of coveted satellite launch slots. The highest proportion of GDP is derived from tourism, fishing, limited agricultural exports and remittances from Tongans living abroad. It is also experiencing a significant migration pattern trend with native Tongans increasingly emigrating offshore seeking employment opportunities.
Concurrently, there is a notable influx of Chinese migrants seeking improved economic prospects in Tonga. On the political front, Tonga has experienced a transition away from diplomatic alignment with former colonial compatriots towards an increasing accommodation of socialist China as the preferred national partner.
Tonga is also particularly vulnerable to theoretical global climate change owing to its high proportion of low-lying coastal land. Tonga has been particularly vocal in global forums regarding the imperative to address Global warming and the threat of sea level change.
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Lastly, it has also been subject to recent civil instability and riots instigated by indigenous Tongans frustrated by the loss of control of their retail sector to Chinese immigrants. With China being emboldened by a perception of declining US economic capacity and hegemony, it may be preparing the groundwork for its own hegemonic rise.
Other analysts purport that the pivot represents a veiled expansionist drive towards challenging the interests of the established US-lead Western hegemonic order realist theoretical perspective.
This may point towards a different underlying agenda than simple economic opportunism. Additionally, the new US administration has expressed no direct intention of abandoning the region, instead, resolving to maintain US regional hegemony.
Under such conditions, China would, therefore, be increasingly unlikely to solely pursue peaceful intentions in its Tonga pivot. Instead, a more likely scenario sees China actively pursuing opportunities, such as those offered by a Tonga pivot, to buffer against an imminent US containment stance.
Whilst past behaviour is no guarantee of future intentions, it does merit a heightened awareness that China may be pursuing a less benign course for its own strategic ends.
In such conditions, China is said to operate under the guise of soft-power humanitarian interventions designed to justify its growing regional presence and to help it gain a larger regional foothold. Courting of the Tongan Mormon Church With the growth of the Mormon Church in Tonga and the associated infiltration into political and ruling circles, opportunities have been afforded the Mormon faith to promote its agenda domestically and internationally.
Concurrently, China has reciprocally enlisted the support of the Mormon Church to promote its own strategic agenda in Tonga. The Tongan Mormon Church is intrinsically connected to the international Mormon Church and its aim of spreading Mormon beliefs globally utilising missionary workers.
In return, Tongan missionaries have recently been granted special dispensations for their evangelical work in China, being afforded an extraordinary degree of governmental tolerance, significantly more than has been provided to other religious organisations.
In this way, China may be afforded an additional relational foothold with which to leverage its strategic aspirations for the Tongan nation. Courting of the Aristocracy and Political Elite The international relations mood in Tonga emphasises fierce independence from outside influence and the perpetuation of the traditional monarchical rule.
This nationalist independence explains the prevalent distaste expressed towards patronising nations which attempt to impose foreign values on Tongan political decision making.
US-affiliated Western powers have often applied a prescriptive approach to interacting with the Tongan regime and have possibly fallen from favour with Tongan decision makers.Deliberative democracy or discursive democracy is a form of democracy in which deliberation is central to ph-vs.com adopts elements of both consensus decision-making and majority ph-vs.comrative democracy differs from traditional democratic theory in that authentic deliberation, not mere voting, is the primary source of .
Gaussian Processes and Kernel Methods Gaussian processes are non-parametric distributions useful for doing Bayesian inference and learning on unknown functions. They can be used for non-linear regression, time-series .
Gaussian Processes and Kernel Methods Gaussian processes are non-parametric distributions useful for doing Bayesian inference and learning on unknown functions. They can be used for non-linear regression, time-series modelling, classification, and many other problems.
David Jones Pty Limited, trading as David Jones (colloquially DJs), is an Australian upmarket department store, owned since by South African retail group Woolworths Holdings Limited..
David Jones was founded in by David Jones, a Welsh merchant and future politician after he emigrated to Australia, and is the oldest continuously . This bar-code number lets you verify that you're getting exactly the right version or edition of a book.
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